|Meaning: Differs from the reference object (reference). The object does not have to exist for an expression to have a meaning. Words are not related to objects in a one-to-one correspondence. There is an important distinction between word meaning and sentence meaning. See also use theory, sentence meaning, reference, truth.|
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Ways of meaning
1 Denotation - 2 Exemplification - 3 Expression - 4 "mediated reference".
sameness of meaning seems to include more than coextensitivity of expressions. But we have not found. intuitive adequate standards for synonymy Since the internal lexicon supposedly contains the meanings of our expressions, the ambiguity surrounding the term of meaning leads to a lack of clarity about what the lexicon finally is to contain.
Often nothing in the consciousness of the speaker determines the extension of his expressions. E.g I can know that "Feynman" and "Gell-Man" are the names of important physicist, but do not know how the one differs from the other.
Weisen der Welterzeugung Frankfurt 1984
Tatsache Fiktion Voraussage Frankfurt 1988
Sprachen der Kunst Frankfurt 1997
N. Goodman/K. Elgin
Revisionen Frankfurt 1989