Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Observation: detecting characteristics and behavior of objects by whatsoever contact with the object unlike conclusions from past processes or assumeded or imperceptible parts or hidden parameters. See also hidden variable, observation language, theories.
Author Item Excerpt Meta data
Luhmann, Niklas
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Observation Observation/Luhmann: Operation - Observers: System. - Forms itself when operators form sequences. - The observer is in reality - not above her. - Observation: = distinction - E.g. system/environment - e.g sign/signified - E.g. medium/form.
AU Cas 7
Distinction/observation/Luhmann: peculiar asymmetry: it does not work without two sides, it does not go without their unit, but it only works on one side and not at the same time on the other side - would both sides be present at the same time, there would be no difference anymore. Transcendental philosophy/Kant/Luhmann: introduces it through the need for asymmetry: the conditions of empirical knowledge cannot be empirical conditions by themselves. - E.g. If you think about, that the seller must be seen business and not morally, you cannot ask the same time, what is the unity of the distinction between morality and business. - You cannot observe yourself in the moment of observation as someone who handles the distinction. - A reflection of the distinction is quite possible, but by another distinction. - E.g. we speak now of distinctions - but against a background of things that are not differentiated.
AU Cas 7
Observation/Luhmann: E.g. The economy observes by means of prices the customers and the competition. - Second order observation: E.g. One can observe a shift of the blind spot.

N. Luhmann
Einf├╝hrung in die Systemtheorie Heidelberg 1992

Lu I
N. Luhmann
Die Kunst der Gesellschaft Frankfurt 1997

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-04-23