|Observation sentence also protocol sentence or basis sentence: Description of a sensually perceived event. Observation sentences are not irreversible and not independent of theories because of the vocabulary used in them.|
|Quine, Willard Van Orman
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|Observation Sentences||II 43
Categorical observation sentences: are independent of time and space "Where there’s smoke, there’s fire" - through language learning - knowledge still needs Space/Time - but they are theoretical terms - Truth of categorical observation sentences not by observation - But falsification (> Popper).
Empirical content = categorical observation sentences: linking theory and observation - two theories are equivalent if all categorical sentences are identical - theory implies categorical sentences without being implied by them - theoretical term does not appear in categorical sentence.
Observation sentences are not about the experience! ((s) but about language, learning, situation, circumstances) - Quine: but they are fairly analog to the experience - single observation sentences are quite independent of each other.
Observation sentence/compound/Quine: complex observation sentence. not merely conjunction "There is blue" and "There is a pebble" - but "This pebble is blue".
Sentences enter the link with stimulus leeway as a whole - N.B.: in this case they do not contain words, but only syllables! ((s)> Language learning, conditioning).
Observation sentence/weight of theory/Quine: learned in connection with the stimulus situation, the sentence is free of theory - but considered word by word it contains theory.
Language learning/observation sentence/ontology/Quine: we assume full sentences - if we had assumed single words, we would have ignored the problem of ontology and would already have assumed objects.
Categorical observation sentence/Quine: brings hypothesis: "As soon as this, then that".
But no reification of points in time.
Circumstances: should be accompanying constantly - this makes pronouns and anaphora necessary - but not observation conditional: this is gained from un-timed (timeless) sentences using the theory.
Observation sentence/Quine: new: no longer intersubjective agreement as a criterion.
But fluidity of communication - and efficiency of practical contact - therein lies the "factualness".
Definition observation sentence/naturalized epistemology/Quine: the sentences that are causally closest to the receptors - problem: "how to eliminate superfluous information?"
Better: sentence which is insensitive within a community when it comes to differences in past experiences.
In larger communities, the number of recognized object languages drops.
Decide: identity of the leeway of stimuli - ((s) Set of possible deviations must be the same for all members.)
Wort und Gegenstand Stuttgart 1980
Theorien und Dinge Frankfurt 1985
Grundzüge der Logik Frankfurt 1978
Mengenlehre und ihre Logik Wiesbaden 1967
Die Wurzeln der Referenz Frankfurt 1989
Unterwegs zur Wahrheit Paderborn 1995
From a logical point of view Cambridge, Mass. 1953
Bezeichnung und Referenz
Zur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg), München 1982
Philosophie der Logik Bamberg 2005
Ontologische Relativität Frankfurt 2003