|Definition: determination of the use of linguistic signs (words, symbols, connectives) for non-linguistic or linguistic objects. New definitions are not supposed to be creative, that is, they are to be derived from the use of the signs already employed. See also definability, conservativity, systems, theories, models, reference systems, context definition, explicit defnition, implicit definition.|
|Kripke, Saul Aaron
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|Definitions||EMD II 342
Definition/Kripke: "great fundamental principle": Definitions must be formulated in a language already understood - then there is little room for alternative interpretations of a metalanguage - (even if syntactic and semantic structure can be interpreted differently) - (>Loewenheim)
EMD II 390
Implicit Definition/Kripke: by rule - otherwise no generalizations in finite systems can be derived from (infinite) instances.
EMD II 392
Definition/Kripke: No inductive definition is possible if it does not start with a general characterization of the atomic (basic) case.
EMD II 393
Direct Definition: Not recursive - recursive definition: indirect, in Tarski definition of truth via recursive definition of fulfillment - Question: could he also have defined truth directly? If so, would fulfillment be definable in terms of truth?
Implicit Definition: Depends on axioms. These imply (for example) truth implicit in the sense that truth is the only interpretation of the predicate T(x) which makes all the axioms true - explicit definition: does not depend on axioms, but on expressive power of the language (not theory) - Sat1(x,y) is explicitly definable in terms of T(x) - explicit definition by introducing a new variable (II 402).
Kripke I 66ff
Definition/reference/standard meter/Kripke: He does not use this definition to specify the meaning, but to define the reference.
There is a certain length which he would like to denote. He denotes it through an accidental property. Someone else may refer to the same reference by another accidental property. He can still definitely say: If heat had been in the game, the length would have changed.
Rigid: meter - not rigid: length of S at time t.
The "definition" does not say that the two terms are synonymous, but that we have determined the reference of the term "one meter" by establishing that it should be a rigid designation expression that actually has the length S. So not a necessary truth! We must distinguish between definitions that specify a reference, and definitions that specify a synonym. Definition: not necessary: E.g. tiger: large, carnivorous, four legged cat, etc. Suppose someone says: "This is the meaning of tiger in German".
ZiffVs: this is wrong. E.g. a tiger with three legs is not a contradiction in itself.
In the case of proper names the reference can be defined in various ways.
Determination of reference: A priori (contingent) - not synonymous.
Meaning: analytical (required) Definition: specifies reference and expresses a priori truth.
Name und Notwendigkeit Frankfurt 1981
S. A. Kripke
Outline of a Theory of Truth (1975)
Recent Essays on Truth and the Liar Paradox, R. L. Martin (Hg), Oxford/NY 1984
G. Evans/J. McDowell
Truth and Meaning Oxford 1977
The Varieties of Reference (Clarendon Paperbacks) Oxford 1989