|Demonstratives: E.g. this, that, that one. Problems in language use bcause of lack of clarity when referring back to prior description. - In logic missing expressibility of uniqueness. See also anaphora, deixis, relations, logical proper names, index words, indexicality, iota operator.|
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Demonstratives / possible worlds / knowledge / belief / Nozick: "given that" compels us to keep things constant and therefore to consider more distant worlds - also demonstratives can fix things - II 226 e.g. "Do I know that this e- thing (a pen with familiar scratch) is h? "here e is kept fixed (constant) and the answer seems to provoke the skeptic that h is not known - solution: in reality it is about "non-(e and non-h)" which is not known - skepticism: if e is the only evidence and does not imply (entail) h, how do we know that h, given e? - narrower skepticism: goes even further: e falls into a class of statements (about behavior), and h (the conclusion) to another (via mental states).
Philosophical Explanations Oxford 1981
The Nature of Rationality 1994