|Property: what can be ascribed to an object in order to distinguish it from other objects. In philosophy, there is debate about whether properties exist or whether "bare particulars" exist. Expressions for properties are predicates. Not every predicate will refer to a property. See also quantification over properties, 2nd order logic, HOL, completeness.|
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Properties/Competition/Evolution/Dennett: E.g. competition in coin toss produces some kind of winner. However, this winner is not the carrier of any historical properties that would have predestined him to be the winner, like it happens in a tennis tournament.
In a repetition hardly the same person would win.
Coincidence/Dennett: coincidence has no memory. (E.g. competition in coin toss favors no properties of the winner).
Properties/"Eve"/Human origin/Dennett: except for the fact that she had two daughters, there is nothing special about Eve! She was certainly not the first human woman and not harder working than her contemporaries. (> Competition, coin toss).
She can only be identified afterwards.
Properties/Evolution "why" questions/Dennett: E.g. 99 per cent of all living creatures that have ever lived have died without offspring, but non of our ancestors belonged to them. In our family tree we find ancestors with strengths and weaknesses, but none of these weaknesses led to extinction. So it might seem as though the evolution cannot explain even one property that we have inherited from our ancestors.> Explanation.
Properties/Dennett: does the world of the living have many properties that are there for no reason? That depends on what you consider to be a property.
Exthe fact that an elephant has more legs than eyes is not an adaptation and no adaptationist would assert that.
Properties/Dennett: E.g. The Sword in the Stone that only Arthur can pull out: invisible property that only shows itself in the situation.
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999