|Essentialism: the view that objects have some of their properties necessarily. See also essence, necessity de re, necessity, contingency, properties, actualism, possible worlds.|
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Essentialism/Today/VsQuine: most modal logicians today accept essentialism - QuineVsEssentialism: incorrect: to say that one description is better than the other, because it better characterizes essential properties of an object.
Essence/Essentialism/Essential property/LeibnizVsQuine/Stalnaker: Thesis: every property of every individual constitutes its essence and only the existence of the thing as a whole is contingent -
Anti-essentialism/quantified modal logic/Stalnaker/conclusion: in order to connect the two, we need real semantic conditions for atomic predicates - reason: (Ex)N(Fx) > (x)N(Fx). Is a theorem, but not its substitution instance (Ex)N(Rxy) > (x)N(Rxy). - (if something necessarily is father of x, then everything is necessarily father of x - Of course, only intrinsic predicates are in question, but this is assumed and not explained.
Essentialism/Stalnaker: questions about it are questions about how far it is appropriate and possible to abstract.
Ways a World may be Oxford New York 2003