|Formal language: a language that usually consist of a set of symbols (icons for a defined domain of objects) and rules regarding their linkage. Purposes of formalization are brevity, uniqueness and versatility in applications like programming, automation, mathematics et al. See also domains, symbols, signs, language, recursion, rules, systems.|
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|Formal Language||Berka I 458
Formal language/Tarski: here the meaning of each term is uniquely determined by its shape.
Variables: have no independent meaning - statements remain after translation into everyday language statements - Variable/Tarski: represent for us always names of classes of individuals.
Berka I 461
Formal language/terminology/abbreviations/spelling/Tarski: here: the studied language (object language) - Symbols: N, A, I, P: negation, alternation, inclusion, quantifier - metalanguage: Symbols ng (negation), sm (sum = alternation), in (inclusion) - this is the language in which the examination is performed ng, sm, etc. correspond to the colloquial expressions ((s) the formal symbols N, A, etc. do not).
E.g. object language: Example expression: Nixi, xll: - meta language: translation of this expression: (structural-descriptive name, symbolic expression): name: "((ng ^ in) ^ v1) ^ v2" - but: see below: difference name/translation.
Horwich I 112
Formal language/Tarski: in it all assertible sentences are theorems - there may be a language with exactly specified structure, which is not formalized - then the assertibility may depend on extra-linguistic factors.
Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics: Papers from 1923-38 Indianapolis 1983
K. Berka/L. Kreiser
Logik Texte Berlin 1983
P. Horwich (Ed.)
Theories of Truth Aldershot 1994