|Wholes, philosophy: the concept of the whole is unique only in connection with further specification. In the mereology the term avoids paradoxes that occur in connection with the universal class (universal set). The whole is not different from its parts in the way a set is different from its elements. See also unity, one, set, universal class, universal set, mereology, parts, part-of-relation, mereological sum, upper bound, totality.|
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Whole/ontology/Simons does not always have to be ontological overridingly to its parts: E.g. pile of stones - probably contrarily ontological overridingly: organism: survives flux of its parts.
Whole/Rescher/Oppenheim: 1. Attribute - 2. characteristic relation - 3. certain structure.
Parts Oxford New York 1987