|Grammar: total domain of linguistic theory encompassing syntax, semantics, phonology, morphology. W.V.O. Quine distinguishes the grammar from the lexicon. L. Wittgenstein calls sentences about language grammatical sentences. See also meaning, lexicon, language.|
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Grammar/Black: 1) Classification of words according to function - 2) How words are modified by prefixes and suffixes - 3) Presentation of the syntax.
Grammar is explored by trying to obtain information about well-formedness from the speaker.
BlackVsSpeculative Grammar: presumes a structure of reality and a non-linguistic approach - as impossible as comparison of maps without any distortion.
Map: crucial: correct information, not similarity - analog: symbolic representations of language.
Objectivity/Grammar/Black: grammar is objective if some features are essential for the description -> grammatical invariants - Black: but that's not fertile.
There are no grammatical invariants.
Bedeutung und Intention
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg), Frankfurt/M 1979
Sprache München 1973
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983