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|Grice||AVR 114 I
Grice/Schiffer: (= intention-based approach) is obliged to deny logical function of importance - instead: dependence on a (causal) fact (which is non-semantically specified).
Schiffer I 13
Grice/Schiffer: Problem: the meaning must not determine the content. - Because semantic vocabulary must be avoided - therefore VsRelation Theory. - The belief objects would have to be language independent.
Intention-based approach/Grice/Schiffer: works without Relation Theory and without compositional semantics. - extrinsic explanation is about non-semantically describable facts of use - SchifferVsGrice: has not enough to say about the semantic properties of linguistic units.
Grice/Schiffer: (Meaning, 1957): attempts to define semantic concepts of public language in terms of propositional attitudes (belief, wishing, wanting). With that nothing is assumed about the meaning itself.
Definition speaker-meaning/Grice: (1957) (1) Is non-circular definable as a kind of behavior with the intention to trigger a belief or an action in someone else - Definition expression meaning/Grice: (1957) (2) that means the semantic features of expressions of natural language. - Is non-circular definable as certain types of correlations between characters and types of exercise of speaker-meaning. - Statement/extended: every act, that means something. - Schiffer: thus questions of meaning are reduced to questions about propositional attitudes.
A character string has to have a particular feature, so that the intention is detected.
Grice/Schiffer: Problem: Falsifying evidence is not a (to) mean-problem. common knowledge is necessary, but always to refute by counter-examples - Solution: to define common knowledge by counterfactual conditions - Problem: not even two people have common knowledge.
SchifferVsGrice: no one has set up a lot of reasonable conditions for speaker-meaning. - Problem: a person, can satisfy the conditions of (S) when he merely says that A intended to cause it, that A believes that p ((S) = lies) - SchifferVsGrice: hyper-intellectual, presupposes too much intentions and expectations, that will never be divided - the normal speaker knows too little to understand the expression-meaning by Grice.
E.g. I hope you believe me, but not on the basis of my intention - ((s) but because of the content, or the truth) - a necessary condition to tell something is not a necessary condition to mean it as well.
Remnants of Meaning Cambridge 1987