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They lead away from the theory - but can lead to the truth.
Idealization/Science/Cartwright: does not only omit, but introduces something that is not prescribed by the fundamental laws. - Approach: We cannot make corrections at the beginning. - We cannot correct backwards and thus assume to come out at a fundamental law -> crossover effects.
It may be that what is the correct approach is not decided by the facts. ((s)> Non-factualism). - I.e. two approaches (with different results) can be justified by the same facts - the same approach, if applied in different places, can have different results: E.g. Lamb shift: excited atom or in the base state - not a fact prescribes which is to be assumed.
Accuracy is only apparent if the initial problem is not given exactly.
Idealization/Distortion/Science/Physics/Cartwright: Example a) interested in atoms: Then distortion in the description of the field (E.g. infinite number of degrees of freedom) - b) if field is examined: then infinite degrees of freedom stored in the walls of the laser cavity, etc. - realistic: is an approach that uses more bridge principles.
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Hacking I 361
Approximation/Cartwright: Problem: approximation should lead away from confusing details - but the number of possible approximations itself is confusing - most approximate equations are themselves already simplifications of equations that you could not solve.
How the laws of physics lie Oxford New York 1983
Einführung in die Philosophie der Naturwissenschaften Stuttgart 1996