|Quine, Willard Van Orman
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Theseus ship: this is not about the expression the same but the expression ship.
Each general term has its own individuation principle.
Individuation: in our world, moment-to-moment individuation by predicates - for objects at random (everything can be the object), crucial for predicates. > truth value.
Individuation/Object/language acquisition/Quine: in order to learn dog one has to learn more than the existence - we must also learn the individuating power of the term, the splitting of the reference - ((s)> shared reference) - one must learn what is to be regared as one dog and what as another - Dog is more like Water than like Mom: you can see several dogs - Thing: from similarity 2nd order (similarities) - pointing/Problem: This is a dog - must not exclude any dog - (general term).
Individuation/Overlapping/Pointing/Quine: no problem: Dogs never overlap: each consists exactly of the points that belong to the same dog as a particular point - dogs do not have common points - different: overlapping circular disks: here the shape needs to be redrawn while pointing at it - Quine: only at the beginning of learning - solution: you can easily tell a is identical with b. Whether a is the same dog or the same ear depends on whether a is a dog or an ear.
QuineVsGeach: thus his relativism becomes untenable - Still identity relative in a deeper sense: I-standards are different.
Pointing: E.g. This body is an animal: here the outline must be carefully traced, otherwise it may be that only the trunk is regarded as an animal.
Individuation/General term/Quine: -Square is an individuating word - ((s) Fido is not: E.g. This is Fido.)
Individuation/Quine: its fineness depends on the number of the general terms in the language - lexical glasses - individuation takes place in the eye of the beholder.
Properties/Individuation/Quine: properties are individuated as follows: two open sentences which determine the same class do not determine the same property if they are not analytically equivalent. (!).
Individuation/Apparatus/Translation indeterminacy/ontological relativity/Quine: words for object, identity predicate the same as, a different one, plural form, logical particles, pronouns - that’s the frame of reference (coordinate system) - Important argument: this is not consistent in translation! - Uncertainty: you can counter: In what sense of rabbit? ((s) whether part or whole).
Wort und Gegenstand Stuttgart 1980
Theorien und Dinge Frankfurt 1985
Grundzüge der Logik Frankfurt 1978
Mengenlehre und ihre Logik Wiesbaden 1967
Die Wurzeln der Referenz Frankfurt 1989
Unterwegs zur Wahrheit Paderborn 1995
From a logical point of view Cambridge, Mass. 1953
Bezeichnung und Referenz
Zur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg), München 1982
Philosophie der Logik Bamberg 2005
Ontologische Relativität Frankfurt 2003