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|Conditional||IL 112 Conditional/HH: OS - Conclusion/HH: (logical implication): meta level - Conditional: also called (material) implication. - linking of statements.
Logical conclusion: also called (logical) implication. Belongs to the meta level (difference conditional/inference).
Given that he is a coward, it follows that he is either a coward or - whatever you want. But just from the fact that he is a coward it does not follow that if he is not a coward - whatever you want.
Conditional Clause/Conditional/Truth-Functional/Read: if a conditional clause is treated as truth-functional, there are problems - (>paradoxes of implication) - then the whole sentence is true if the antecedent is false - Conversationalist Defense: such a sentence should not be asserted - III 92 Jackson: in conditional clauses, the modus ponens comes into play. - III 93 conditional clauses are not robust (insensitive to additional knowledge) with regard to the falsity of their rear parts - III 94 Aassertibility: is applied to the sub-sentences, not only to the whole conditional clause! - If assertibility counts, conditional clauses are no longer truth functional. III 1035
The analysis of the possible world deviates from the truth-functional one when the if-clause is false.
The fact that Edmund is a coward did not automatically mean that the conditional clause is true. III 105
Similarity analysis: a number of logical principles that are classically valid fails here. E.g., the
(Def) Counter-position: that
"If B, then not-A" follows from "if A, then not-B". (inter alia IV 41)
The similar world in which it rains may very well be one in which it rains only slightly. But the most similar world where it rains heavily cannot be one in which it does not rain.
Conditional clauses: statements (Grice) - no statements: Stalnaker's question: conditional clause truth-functional? - Def truth-functional: 1 counter-example invalidates III 220
Grice: Conditional clauses are statements - Stalnaker: conditional clauses are not statements. (Pretty radical) - the camps are about equally strong. - III 220/21 Conditional Clauses/Conditional/Read: the assertion that they are truth-functional says that a counter-example for the falsity of the conditional clause is not only sufficient but also necessary - if there is no counter-example, then it is true - this leads us to believe in sharp cuts in Sorites.
Me I Albert Menne Folgerichtig Denken Darmstadt 1988
HH II Hoyningen-Huene Formale Logik, Stuttgart 1998
Re III Stephen Read Philosophie der Logik Hamburg 1997
Sal IV Wesley C. Salmon Logik Stuttgart 1983
Sai V R.M.Sainsbury Paradoxien Stuttgart 2001