Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Author Item Excerpt Meta data
Quine, Willard Van Orman
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Ambiguity I 231
Ambiguity: The name Paul is not ambiguous, no general term but a singular term with dissemination - ambiguity action/habit: ice skaters, delivery (action, object).
I 232
Truth is not ambiguous, but general: true confession as true as math. Law - difference between laws and confessions! - Also "existence" is not ambiguous.
I 233
Circumstances/Quine: important with ambiguities.
I 236
Ambiguities: "a" (can be "any") - "nothing", "nobody" are undetermined singular terms (E.g. Polyphemus).
I 244
Scope ambiguous: cannot be decided by parentheses - undetermined singular term: a, any, every member - "not a"/"not every" - "I think one is so that ..." / "one is so that I think ... ".
IX 184
Russell: "systematic (or type-wise) ambiguity/Russell: Solution for problem: relations: the type is only fixed when we state the type of things from the left end of the range and from the right end of the range - problem: the two-dimensionality can add up to growths: E.g. type of a relation of things of type m to things of type n: (m, n) - the type of a class of such relations should be called ((m, n)), then [((m,n))] is the type of a relation of such classes to such classes - orders were obviously even worse.
IX 194
Systematic ambiguity/theoretical terms/Quine: (context: polyvalent logic, 2nd order logic) Systematic ambiguity suppresses the indices, allows to stick to the simple quantifier logic. - a formula like "Ey"x(xey)", which is treated as a type-wise ambiguous, can simply be equated with the scheme Eyn + 1 "xn (xn EYN + 1), where "n" is a schematic letter for any index - its universality is the schematic universality that it stands for any of a number of formulas: Ey1 "x0 (x0 e Y1), Ey2 "x1(x1 e y2) - and not the universality that consist in the fact that it is quantified undivided over an exhaustive universal class - a formula is meaningless if it cannot be equipped with indices that comply with the theoretical terms.
Problem: then also the conjunction of two meaningful formulas can become meaningless - Systematic ambiguity/theoretical terms: we can always reduce multiple variable types to a single one if we only take on suitable predicates - "universal variables" that we restrict to the appropriate predicate - "Tnx" expresses that x is of type n - old: ""xnFxn"and "ExnFxn - new: "x(Tnx > Fx), E.g.(Tnx u Fx).

W.V.O. Quine
Wort und Gegenstand Stuttgart 1980

W.V.O. Quine
Theorien und Dinge Frankfurt 1985

W.V.O. Quine
Grundzüge der Logik Frankfurt 1978

W.V.O. Quine
Mengenlehre und ihre Logik Wiesbaden 1967

W.V.O. Quine
Die Wurzeln der Referenz Frankfurt 1989

W.V.O. Quine
Unterwegs zur Wahrheit Paderborn 1995

W.V.O. Quine
From a logical point of view Cambridge, Mass. 1953

W.V.O. Quine
Bezeichnung und Referenz
Zur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg), München 1982

W.V.O. Quine
Philosophie der Logik Bamberg 2005

W.V.O. Quine
Ontologische Relativität Frankfurt 2003

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-04-29