|Quine, Willard Van Orman
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Ambiguity: The name Paul is not ambiguous, no general term but a singular term with dissemination - ambiguity action/habit: ice skaters, delivery (action, object).
Truth is not ambiguous, but general: true confession as true as math. Law - difference between laws and confessions! - Also "existence" is not ambiguous.
Circumstances/Quine: important with ambiguities.
Ambiguities: "a" (can be "any") - "nothing", "nobody" are undetermined singular terms (E.g. Polyphemus).
Scope ambiguous: cannot be decided by parentheses - undetermined singular term: a, any, every member - "not a"/"not every" - "I think one is so that ..." / "one is so that I think ... ".
Russell: "systematic (or type-wise) ambiguity/Russell: Solution for problem: relations: the type is only fixed when we state the type of things from the left end of the range and from the right end of the range - problem: the two-dimensionality can add up to growths: E.g. type of a relation of things of type m to things of type n: (m, n) - the type of a class of such relations should be called ((m, n)), then [((m,n))] is the type of a relation of such classes to such classes - orders were obviously even worse.
Systematic ambiguity/theoretical terms/Quine: (context: polyvalent logic, 2nd order logic) Systematic ambiguity suppresses the indices, allows to stick to the simple quantifier logic. - a formula like "Ey"x(xey)", which is treated as a type-wise ambiguous, can simply be equated with the scheme Eyn + 1 "xn (xn EYN + 1), where "n" is a schematic letter for any index - its universality is the schematic universality that it stands for any of a number of formulas: Ey1 "x0 (x0 e Y1), Ey2 "x1(x1 e y2) - and not the universality that consist in the fact that it is quantified undivided over an exhaustive universal class - a formula is meaningless if it cannot be equipped with indices that comply with the theoretical terms.
Problem: then also the conjunction of two meaningful formulas can become meaningless - Systematic ambiguity/theoretical terms: we can always reduce multiple variable types to a single one if we only take on suitable predicates - "universal variables" that we restrict to the appropriate predicate - "Tnx" expresses that x is of type n - old: ""xnFxn"and "ExnFxn - new: "x(Tnx > Fx), E.g.(Tnx u Fx).
Wort und Gegenstand Stuttgart 1980
Theorien und Dinge Frankfurt 1985
Grundzüge der Logik Frankfurt 1978
Mengenlehre und ihre Logik Wiesbaden 1967
Die Wurzeln der Referenz Frankfurt 1989
Unterwegs zur Wahrheit Paderborn 1995
From a logical point of view Cambridge, Mass. 1953
Bezeichnung und Referenz
Zur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg), München 1982
Philosophie der Logik Bamberg 2005
Ontologische Relativität Frankfurt 2003