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Mereology/Simons: has operators instead of quantifiers (of PL) - Op take a Term N and form a new term N (a noun) - E.g "ov" overlapper of "pt" "part-of", "ex" outsider of-complex terms: E.g. instead PL: "binary product of () and ()" - easier "(Bpr (,))" - mereology: "Sm" "sum-of" "Pr": "Product-of" - plural Disignation/Mer: "Sum of the squares" instead PL: "Sum of x such that x is a square.
Mereological consistency: E.g. wine in a specific bottle stops, being this when poured - mereological variability: e.g. water in the river Salzach: "the same water with differences in its entirety". - Mass Termini: tend to consistency - because we are referring with terms of constancy to change - material things are mereological variable: they can gain and lose parts. - Pro: Aristotle, Locke - Vs: Leibniz, Hume, Reid, Chisholm.
Mereological consistency/succession/Chisholm: mereological variable objects are only logical structures made of mereological constant objects (entia per se) - the relation of succession depends on the type of object (e.g. table or cat).
Continuity/Simons: stricter than mereological consistency: the hair must exist continuously, so that the old hairstyle can be restored.
Mereology/Science/Practice/Simons: most of the objects of the natural sciences E.g. stars, planets, organisms, volcanoes are such that they are both: natural objects or whole and at the same time mereological variable - so middle course between essentialism and arbitrary or conventional parts.
Parts Oxford New York 1987