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Models/Goodman: In many cases, a model is a copy or an individual case for which it is a model (e.g. model citizen). In other cases, the roles are reversed: what the model denotes that has as an individual case, for which it is model. A mathematical model is a formula that applies to the process. Ship model, architecture model, wooden model of a car: none is a description in the normal or the mathematical sense of the language. Unlike samples these models are denotative.
Models of this type are in fact diagrams. Or: Diagrams are flat and static models. A molecular model of sticks and table tennis balls is digital. A working model of a windmill can be analog.
E.g. The model house can also be a denotative model of houses under development including itself, and it exemplifies itself as a label. It differs from the miniature model as "monosyllabic" differs from "polysyllabic".
Models are not, as it is often assumed, necessarily metaphorical. That depends on how it is steered by a prior use.
Weisen der Welterzeugung Frankfurt 1984
Tatsache Fiktion Voraussage Frankfurt 1988
Sprachen der Kunst Frankfurt 1997
N. Goodman/K. Elgin
Revisionen Frankfurt 1989