Books on Amazon
Fact/Nonfactualism/Field: E.g. relativistic mass or net weight in the Special Relativity Theory: - no fact decides which hypothesis is to be assumed. - The laws are, however, in some cases easier to formulate, depending on the choice.
Fact/discourse without facts/Nonfactualism/Field: 1. Questions of vagueness (Sorites): E.g. there is no fact, to which "bare" precisely refers - 2. assessment questions/morality/ethics. - 3. sentences with indicators/index words - 4. subjunctive conditional/counterfactual conditional/co.co.
Nonfactualism/Factualism/Reference Framework/Relativity/Field: Nonfactualist: has a relativized T-predicate - but for him there is no "real" time order. - Deflationism: distinguishes nonfactualism/factualism on the basis of accepted sentences. - Problem: also the factualist could have a relativized concept by introducing it as a basic concept - e.g. "cosmically privileged framework" - then one can no longer distinguish factualism and nonfactualism. - solution: to ask the factualist why his framework is privileged - a) if he speaks of scientific exceptions, it is distinguishable from nonfactualism - b) if unscientific, then indistinguishable.
Nonfactualism/ethics: does not have to say that the sentences have no truth values - it can say that the truth value ascriptions do not have the factual status, as the assertions themselves. Problem: if you only have the disquotation scheme, how should you state what is not entirely supported by facts? - Solution: everyday language: also contains an (implicit) fact operator. - FieldVs: the rules for this are unclear.
Nonfactualism/Ethics/non-deflationism/Gibbard/Field: (Gibbard 1990): admits that evaluations have a factual component - factual and nonfactual must be connected in one and the same analysis - sets of ordered pairs of possible worlds and standard systems, so that an utterance is true in this world according to this norm - possible world: is here a complete specification of factual information.
But it does not contain any "normative facts" - complete norm: associates with each evaluative predicate a non-evaluative equivalent - E.g. "maximizes utility" -> utilitarianism - Nonfactualism: Thesis: the real world contains no "normative facts". - N.B.: this non-existence is not a normative fact on its part. - Otherwise, error theory: Thesis: "It is a fact that there are no facts" - then: E.g.: "We should do this and that, according to norm N": is itself not norm-dependent but factual.
Factualism/Field: does not postulate here a realm of facts, which the nonfactualist denies. - Everything that the factualist asserts can be expressed by the nonfactualist by "~ A v B" (negation and disjunction). ((s) Then there is no antecedent that is made false by the absence of facts and thus creates a trivially true consequence).
Realism, Mathematics and Modality Oxford New York 1989
Truth and the Absence of Fact Oxford New York 2001
Science without numbers Princeton New Jersey 1980