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|Necessity de re||I 257
Necessity de re/necessary de re/Simons: E.g. Tom cannot exist without head - ((s) if he exists, then not headless) - Definition essential/Simons: E.g. Tom cannot exist otherwise than as a huamn - he is essentially human. - Others Vs: ((s) somewhere: Kripke could have been an aardvark.) - Simons: against: necessity de dicto: is a property of sentences. - (De dicto) - then wrong: the fact that Tom is a human would be necessary. - Must de re/Simons: acribes necessarily an object an attribute. - Range/(s): through distinguishing the range of the N-operator "de re" and "de dicto" must no longer be mentioned - de dicto necessary sentence. - De re: sentence, attributing necessity - must de re: talks about necessary facts - (there are none). - Wiggins: alternatively: "Necessity: modifies predicates (instead of sentence operator.)
Necessity/Wiggins: based on l-abstraction (lambda abstraction) is working, instead of using the sentence operator "N". - QuineVsWiggins: misleading: "Nec[(lx)(ly)(x = y)]" "Â the relation as any r and s have, if they are necessarily identical Â» correct: "(lx)(ly)(N(x = y)"(p. 293) - SimonsVsWiggins: "Â Nec Â seems to be superfluous and Wiggins indicates it himself.
Parts Oxford New York 1987