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Order/Benefit theory/Benefit/Scale/Calibration/Von Neumann/Morgenstern/Stalnaker: E.g. someone prefers duck over salmon and salmon over oatmeal. A > B > C - refinement of the scale: one asks the person whether they would prefer B or a 50/50 lot for A v C - if they choose B, it means that they have shifted more to the left on their scale B, closer to A - this process can be repeated to reach ever further refinements - preferences between lots determine numerical values for benefits. - Question: Is it useful to compare preferences interpersonally? - It does definitely not mean that there were facts that were hidden from us. - E.g. just as we also cannot say that grams are less than kilometers. - Solution: interpersonal comparisons are not useful, because there is no non-conventional point zero.
Ways a World may be Oxford New York 2003