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|Propositions||Graeser I 129
SchifferVsPropositions: are no language-independent contents of corresponding settings: they could not even perceive this function. SchifferVsRepresentation: the contents of sentences in question cannot be representations, for example, in a language of thought. Belief/Schiffer: Vs belief as a relation - Mean/SchifferVsDavidson: if there can neither be a sentence-oriented nor a non-sentence-oriented analysis of meaning, then also the possibility of conception of judgmental settings as relations collapses. Graeser: thus we lose the ground under our feet.
Schiffer I ~ XVII
SchifferVsPropositions/late: should contain E.g. dog property - Intention-based semantics/Grice: requires, however, that propositions are neural sentences - problem: no truth conditions in mentalese.
Propositions: have their truth values significantly. - ((s) because they are not public, the truth values are not attributed to the communication) - ((s) but they are also not in mentalese) - phrases/expressions: have their truth values contingently - (in public speech or in mentalese) - Proposition: content itself, is not representation but is represented.
Propositions/Belief object/relation theory/SchifferVsPropositions: always requires natural kind terms - even substitution is not compatible with any propositional theory - propositional theory says that "p" is a real object variable - 2. that propositions are their values - Proposition: abstract, not in space and time - yet real concrete components. - E.g. Capitol in "The Capitol is in NY" - but only if fine-grained (as a complex of individuals and properties) - they are objective and mind-independent as opposed to pain and mental representations.
"Thought"/Frege: = Proposition - also the components and characteristics of propositions are abstract and language independent: e.g. the whiteness of snow - Problem: VsPropositions: ontological commitment to Platonism.
SchifferVsPropositions: are superfluous such as facts and features - E.g. Michele has the property to be funny (or the fact that funny ...) - doubling - fine grained. Complexes that include individuals as a structure as components and properties. - E.g. Situation Semantics/Barwise/Perry, Lewis 1970a - (grainy: set of) - Problem: from compositionality for reference follows that the proposition "snow is white" is necessarily true if snow is white - different: as sets of possible worlds propositions include their speakers not as components.
Proposition: different: if = functions of possible worlds on truth values, then speakers not as components - then maybe partial functions that maps a possible world onto the truth, iff snow is white - Problem: unstructured propositions (functions) cause necessary equivalent propositions to be identical - then the problem of logical omniscience follows - solution: structured (fine-grained) entities: contain objects, properties, operators, which they determine.
Remnants of Meaning Cambridge 1987
Positionen der Gegenwartsphilosophie. München 2002