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> Popper, Singer, Ayer, Hume
Rationality/Justification/RationalityVsVs/Black: four positions: 1) the question itself is incoherent or contradicts itself (Geach) - 2) The question makes sense, but cannot expect a rational response (Ayer) - 3) rationality must be based on something non-rational (Popper) - 4) The impossibility of a response shows that rationality does not need a justification (defense) - Black: Another possibility: proto-rationality as a justification of rationality - E.g. risk response without time for reflection - III 31
The proto-r is then the subsequent construction of reasons.
Quasi-rationality/animal/Black: behavior "as if" one had reasons, e.g. as if the stone hit the target - (because it could hit).
Anti-Rationalism/Black: for the anti-rationalist to survive at all, we we must assume proto-rationality in his case - all further rationality is based on the social abilities - "otherwise he would be without friends.
Punch line: as a child one has no choice about whether one wants to be rational - irrationality: one would have to become someone else’s pet -> apathy.
Bedeutung und Intention
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg), Frankfurt/M 1979
Sprache München 1973
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983