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|Referential Quantification||I 274
Referential Quantification/Schiffer: substituents: are not logical constants ((s) = Objects) - in 1. order logic these can only be singular terms - values that the objects are in the domain of discourse - they are examined, in order to obtain the truth value of the sentences with referential quantification - substitutional Quantification: here you can have substitutional variable substituents, but no values - but the substituent can have values - even in 1. order logic the expressions can be of every semantic category - ontological commitment: only has referential quantification.
Function/Referential quantification/Schiffer: functions require referential quantification instead of substitutional quantification - ((s) The values of these variables must be objects, such as numbers, not linguistic entities).
Remnants of Meaning Cambridge 1987