|Reference, in philosophy: relation of a linguistic expression or action to a real object. Reference presupposes the existence of this object. An expression, which corresponds to no object, has no reference, however, may have a meaning. See also unicorn, Pegasus.|
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|Reference||I 146 ~
Kaplan: Direct Reference: does not depend on the conceptual content of the corresponding belief - externalism Vs: avoids a dualism between the reference and content as representation -
I 196 ~
Reference / Esfeld: when content through social. Certain practice within the physical world, then direct reference (Kaplan) on things.
Holismus Frankfurt/M 2002