Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Reference, in philosophy: relation of a linguistic expression or action to a real object. Reference presupposes the existence of this object. An expression, which corresponds to no object, has no reference, however, may have a meaning. See also unicorn, Pegasus.
 
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Goodman, Nelson
 
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Reference III 57ff
Denotation/Goodman: Something that does not denote, can still refer by explication and expression.
Definition denote/Goodman: means, make reference, but being denoted does not necessarily mean to refer to something. And yet, expression like representation is also a mode of symbolization. And an image must stand for that, what it expresses, it must symbolize it, it must refer to it.
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III 63 ff
In normal language: The reference of "man" to
"Churchill" and "word" to "man" is clearly denotation - But: if, one the other hand, Churchill symbolizes "man", and "man" symbolizes "word" the reference is clearly exemplification.
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IV 63
Denotation/exemplification/Goodman: the two run in opposite directions.
Possession (of properties) is not a kind of reference.
Not all chains formed from references direct the reference from one end to another. Example: The name of the name of the rose is not the name of the rose.

G I
N. Goodman
Weisen der Welterzeugung Frankfurt 1984

G II
N. Goodman
Tatsache Fiktion Voraussage Frankfurt 1988

G III
N. Goodman
Sprachen der Kunst Frankfurt 1997

G IV
N. Goodman/K. Elgin
Revisionen Frankfurt 1989


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-04-25