|Reference, in philosophy: relation of a linguistic expression or action to a real object. Reference presupposes the existence of this object. An expression, which corresponds to no object, has no reference, however, may have a meaning. See also unicorn, Pegasus.|
Books on Amazon
Reference / Horwich: there is little chance for a definition - solution / Field: "primitive reference" - predicate "F" is true of x iff x is F - the name "N" refers to x iff x = N.
P. Horwich (Ed.)
Theories of Truth Aldershot 1994