|Reference, in philosophy: relation of a linguistic expression or action to a real object. Reference presupposes the existence of this object. An expression, which corresponds to no object, has no reference, however, may have a meaning. See also unicorn, Pegasus.|
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Reference / Nozick: I could always point to the sun instead of using a word that - display/ostension / problem / (s): a) is then the sun referring to the sun or e.g. on a tree? - Nozick: b) it is the sun, which is to give the reference or my ostension? - (Strawson / (s): only humans refer, not words - Reference / Nozick: when the sun refers, then there must be on something else waht refers - ((s) Vs: if everything always refers to something different, can "I" ever refer to me?) - ((s) Vs(s): the word, too, not refers to the word, but to the person - and that is something different).
Philosophical Explanations Oxford 1981
The Nature of Rationality 1994