|Reference, in philosophy: relation of a linguistic expression or action to a real object. Reference presupposes the existence of this object. An expression, which corresponds to no object, has no reference, however, may have a meaning. See also unicorn, Pegasus.|
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Reference / meaning: sensation / representational / Peacocke: Question: intrinsically spatial sense? not necessary, because it is about reference, not about meaning - E.g. Horn / Oboe reversed: not monaurally audible, but monocularly visible!
Guaranteed Reference / Peacocke: e.g. my paternal grandfather - e.g. "the oldest living person, or else I" - even a priori guaranteed. - E.g. hallucination: if I was hallucinating Dummett, this is still a thought about Dummett.
Chr. R. Peacocke
Sense and Content Oxford 1983