|Reference, in philosophy: relation of a linguistic expression or action to a real object. Reference presupposes the existence of this object. An expression, which corresponds to no object, has no reference, however, may have a meaning. See also unicorn, Pegasus.|
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New Theory of Reference/Putnam/Schiffer: Frege-Russell desciption theory for belief de re: in terms of physical particulars (Lewis, Loar, Schiffer, Stalnaker) - SchifferVs.
Remnants of Meaning Cambridge 1987