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Seeing/machine/Pinker: "ill-posed problem": inverse optics: to compose an object of pixels - analog: ambiguous factorization.
Seeing/Pinker: field of vision with thousands of processors, for color, others for shape - layer above it: processors that only mark the points that differ from their neighbors - separation of the layers, because it is impossible to distribute detectors for connections to all places (because too many types of connection) - hence, the connections are combinational - Thesis: the combinations are created deliberately. - in memory wrong combination of colors and shapes.
Definition seeing/David Marr: solution of badly posed problems by adding assumptions - creates a description that is useful, and not overloaded with irrelevant information. (Description in mentalese) - illusions/Pinker: make assumptions visible with which the selection has endowed us - Representation/Pinker: not in the form of retinal images but in form of objects and spatial relations.
Marr: Solution: Probability: not all possible combinations occur in the world as frequent as others - the visual line ends in the environment mostly on a surface, which is not much further away than the neighboring surface - some units only turn on when they receive the same input from both eyes.
Seeing/gene/Pinker: genes, cannot foresee the final removal of ocular points, therefore, seeing is not learned, but first needs to be developed.
For three-dimensional seeing you do not need two eyes.
Seeing/shape/color/Pinker: Professionals for tasks: form, color, lighting (angle, reflections, shading) - assumptions: regularity before irregularity, homogeneity, few gray areas.
Seeing/PinkerVsGombrich: contrarily to the widely held view we do not see what we expect to see.
Seeing/Marr: "two-and-half-dimensional sketch": spatial depth is cut back half a dimension - because it does not define the medium in which the information is held.
Seeing/frame of reference/Pinker: for the use of information it is not important, that it is reformed, but that it is collected correctly - which requires a frame of reference or coordinate system - this must be carried along- therefore copies of the images must be made.
Seeing/Pinker: objects have the ability to get frames of references themselves - an adult knows the names of 10,000 obejects, most of them he recognizes by shape - memory/Marr: makes use of the reference frame of the retina - not oriented towards object itself, otherwise save each perspective individually.
Form/shape/Seeing/Biederman: Theory of Geons: Geon: cube, bow, handles, cuboid, pyramid, buckets, etc. - MarrVs/PinkerVs - Geons make lollis out of all - face recognition is impossible.
Seeing/Pinker: new: perhaps only 40 aspects of objects stored, instead of as previously believed 40,000 - crucial: up/down. Africa lying on its side is not recognized - VsGeons: we can turn objects in our mind.
Wie das Denken im Kopf entsteht München 1998