Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Cartwright, Nancy
 
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Simpson’s Paradox I 23
Simpson's Paradox/Cartwright: E.g. Exercise prevents cancer even in smokers. - It may be that the risk reduction through exercise is greater than the cause by smoking. Paradox: that exercise seems to cause cancer - i.e. in the case, when smoking and exercising are highly enough correlated in the population. - Solution: form subgroups - In the whole group smoking seems no more harmful - but important argument: in both subgroups: athletes and non-athletes - E.g. Salmon: a cause does not necessarily increase the probability of its effect.
I 25
Causally homogeneous: if all or no one work out, exercise cannot be correlated with cancer.
I 27
Better: law "uranium causes radioactivity", then no matter whether polonium present.
I 37
If the third factor is causally irrelevant to E, then there is no reason to keep it fixed, and fixing it even provides a false evaluation of causes and strategies. - E.g. The university seemed to reject women more often. - Solution: division into departments. - Women applied more in subjects with higher rejection rate. (E.g. medicine) - Problem: the partition variable is arbitrary: in roller skating more women would have been rejected. ((s) if the actually Rejected in that subject had been looked at).

Car I
N. Cartwright
How the laws of physics lie Oxford New York 1983


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-04-25