|Quine, Willard Van Orman
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Synonymy: is inadequate even with preferred occasion sentences. (Additional information required).
Synonymy is not equality of stimulus meaning - We do not have a criterion.
Stimulus synonymy: for each speaker: "bachelor" = "unmarried man" - But this is not stimulus meaning.
Synonymy: some things are synonymous for the experts, but are not for the novice. - Two terms can refer to the same thing - occasion sentences are different, things are the same (front and back of a coin).
Synonymy of "Gavagai" and "Rabbits" depends on agreement to stimuli, not on synonymy of terms.
Stimulus synonymy is improved by socialization (agreement) - also stimulus analyticity: but now: "2 + 2 = 4" on the same level as "There are black dogs" (acceptability).
Synonymy and analyticity are downgraded, identity is absolute.
Synonymy: inappropriate for paraphrases.
II 61 ff
Cognitive synonymy: various points in time, individual > Community > substitutability of words - same verdicts - not in translation.
Synonymy/Quine: not supplied by (empirical) encyclopedia - Synonymy must come before every definition - perhaps from behavior? - explanation is always based on other synonymy.
Synonymy/Quine: substitutability does not prevent vagueness - nevertheless: substitution of synonyms leads from analytical sentences to logical truths - that leads to cognitive synonymy.
Cognitive synonymy/Quine: E.g. "bachelor" and "unmarried" are supposed to be cognitive synonym, this is the same statement as (3) "All and only bachelors are married is analytical" (iff equivalence) - problem: that requires analyticity. - sufficient condition for cognitive synonymy: (4) "It is necessary that all and only bachelors are bachelors - then insert (5) "unmarried" - then it must be said that (5) is true in order to say that (3) is analytical - therefore bachelors and unmarried cognitive synonymy - (s) cognitive synonymy = truth of analyticity - singular terms are cognitive synonym ift the statement of identity, that is expressed by the equal sign "=" between them, is analytical - statements are cognitive synonym if their biconditional is analytical - we can therefore call cognitive synonymy substitutability salva analyticitate.
Synonymy/Quine: a) within one language - b) between languages - for words: mostly only partial synonymy plus stage directions E.g. "spoiled" for food and individuals - chains must be long enough for real synonymy - seems to consist vaguely in approximate equality of the expression situations - and also in similarity the listener reaction.
Homonymy/Quine: E.g. jaw, marrow - problem: - if a is synonymous with b and b with c, then a is also synonymous with c - ((s) transitive) - if b has two meanings, it can be synonymous with a in one meaning and with c in the other.
Wort und Gegenstand Stuttgart 1980
Theorien und Dinge Frankfurt 1985
Grundzüge der Logik Frankfurt 1978
Mengenlehre und ihre Logik Wiesbaden 1967
Die Wurzeln der Referenz Frankfurt 1989
Unterwegs zur Wahrheit Paderborn 1995
From a logical point of view Cambridge, Mass. 1953
Bezeichnung und Referenz
Zur Philosophie der idealen Sprache, J. Sinnreich (Hg), München 1982
Philosophie der Logik Bamberg 2005
Ontologische Relativität Frankfurt 2003