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Inegalitarian Theory /ig. Th./Nozick: an inegalitarian theory assumes that a state is privileged as a "natural". - This needs no explanation and also does not allow one. - Other situations are then differences that need to be explained. - E.g. For Newton rest or uniformity of movement was the natural state. - For Aristotle: rest. - inegalitarian theory does not answer, 1. Why this state is the natural. - 2. Why exactly these forces are making a difference. - To accept something as a natural state is also to ascribe a specific content to him.
R. Harris: the thesis that something remains the same, does not need to be explained. - NozickVs: but we have to explain why a thing for the purposes of this principle counts as the same and not in other contexts. - Existence: the question concerning it, is typical inegalitary. - Punchline: here we presuppose the nothing as their natural state.
1. We do not know what the natural state is - 2. We do not know whether there is a fundamental natural state at all. That means whether the correct fundamental theory is inegalitary. - Each inegalitarian theory leaves a bare fact as inexplicable back, a "natural state".
Egalitarian Theory/Nozick: needs to see much more possible states as in need of explanation. - But it asks no longer the question "Why X instead of Y?" - But always "Why X?".
Egalitarian Theory/existence/nothing/Nozick: "principle of indifference" (from probability theory). - For them, there are many ways, how things could be, but only one possibility how nothing exists. - Punchline: then is the chance that something exists much greater than that nothing exists. - Vs: one has to make an appropriate division into states that are to be treated as equally likely. - Many ways how things exists can be summarized as one. - Extreme case: only two ways: something exists or does not exist.
Under the worst assumption if we assume a division, there is a 50%-chance that something exists. - Because all other divisions have to be at least three partitions then, the chance that something exists rises for the next alternative already to two-thirds. - At the end almost 1. - Problem: the Wschk theory is still assuming the non-existence as the natural state - because it assumes that if something exists, then randomly - The natural state of a way is the non-realization. - Solution:> richness.
Philosophical Explanations Oxford 1981
The Nature of Rationality 1994