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Properties/Universals/Reference/Schiffer: "modesty" and "Red" refer to nothing. - N.B.: therefore the grammatical singular terms need no reference. - Then no compositional semantics is needed. - Understanding of the sentence "Teresa is modest" needs no acquaintance with humility. - Logical form by E.g. - "Modesty is a virtue": not more fine-grained than "P". - That -clause: has no referent. - A grammatical singular term must not be logically a singular expression.
Remnants of Meaning Cambridge 1987