|Strawson, Peter F.
Books on Amazon
Universals/Strawson: E.g. repeated tone - same chord in various concert halls.
Universals/Strawson: Tradition: only universals and particular-universals (E.g. be-married to John) can be predicted - particulars can never be predicted.
a) Type-universals: provides classification principle, does require none - E.g. generic names - b) characterizing universals: E.g. verbs, adjectives: deliver classification-principle - only for previously classified particulars - but also particulars themselves provide "principle of summary": E.g. Socrates as well as wisdom -> "attributive binding": (non-relational relation between particulars of different types).
Example of characterizing binding between Socrates and the universal death corresponds to the attributive binding between Socrates and his death - see copula.
Universals/Quine/Strawson: should only appear as predicates - pro "nominalism" - StrawsonVsQuine: the language terms of this analysis, already presuppose the existence of subject-expressions.
Essential feature-universals/essential feature-localizing findings/Strawson: E.g. it rains now - snow falls - here is water - no subject-predicate sentences - here no characterizing-universals, but types of material - also no type-universals - the least to make any empirical statements - introduction with demonstrative - N.B.: does not require particular - E.g. Cat essential feature: a) for the same cat, b) for another cat.
Essential-feature-universal/essential feature-localizing/Strawson: the corresponding essential feature-findings actually introduce things - but are not subject terms or subject phrases - "here"/"now" set no limits - (even if they are quantifiable, "there is no point in time ").
Things are not introduced by space and time adverbs.
Einzelding und logisches Subjekt Stuttgart 1972
Analyse und Metaphysik München 1994
Die Grenzen des Sinns Frankfurt 1981