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Necessity/Causation/Armstrong: 1) irreflexive: Nothing causes itself, relative to itself no relation - 2) nontransitive: cause is not transmitted, but a new universal, even probability = 1, requires new law - 3) allows no contra-position (reversal), the effect cannot be the cause of the cause - 4) not symmetric, special case: causes in chain, but not reverse causality, merely necessary "precondition"
Chain of causes not reverse causality, only: each state has a necessary condition - Conditions do not cause! - Analogy: Laws of nature do not order anything - therefore causal laws only a subclass of laws of nature.
Constitution is not causation - (> part/whole) -
AR II = Disp
D. M. Armstrong
Dispositions, Tim Crane, London New York 1996
What is a Law of Nature? Cambridge 1983