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Values/Nozick: four types: 1. Intrinsic value - 2. Instrumental value: is a function or a measure of the intrinsic value and leads to it. (> Expected benefit). Something of instrumental value must not be intrinsically valuable itself.
3. creative value: is a function of the value for something new that is introduced into the world - determinism denies creative values. - Free will: we understand it as it leads to significant differences in value. - Instrumental action: makes a difference, if it would stop, later intrinsic values would not occur. - E.g. brush stroke - The brush stroke itself is not creative.
4. contributors value: what causes the difference. - They are also allowed by determinism. - Determinism does not allow creative values. - Soft determinism: contributing value is sufficient. - Fatalism: Allows no contributing values.
Moral pull/ethics/value/Nozick: my value fixes, what should come from you - Moral Push: Your value fixes, what I should meet with you.
Moral/Nozick: the moral basis is shared by all. So it seems to have nothing interesting to do with you. - It seems to be that we are searching for all values. - Then variant of the categorical imperative: "Do not kill values-seeking egos".
Intrinsic values/ethics/Nozick: intrinsic values occur best with organic unit. - New values occur only in whole, in totalities.
II 562 f.
Values/ethics/Nozick: E.g. assuming there is a possible world without values, but with an organic unity (which is just as good) - Then you could live as if there were values. - This suggests that the existence of values lies in their possibility. - We know what values would be, we just have to bring them to life. - That is not made valuable by something previous - (no circle). - Afterwards the choice is good - then values are not external.
External is: That we gain something through it - internal: connection to our motives.
Then there are also different values: E.g. Nietzsche: revaluation.
Values/facts/connections/Nozick: facts do not contain values - (otherwise naturalistic fallacy). - Connection: some facts (of organic unity) are identical with values. - Explanation: the relation is the organic unity. - Values are organically based on own facts.
Philosophical Explanations Oxford 1981
The Nature of Rationality 1994