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Essential/Simons: what exists, exists essentially. - But it does not exist necessarily - Solution: Assuming that E.g. whatever is a human, must be a human. - (S)but an aardvark could have gotten the name Kripke. - Essential/Simons: = -"relatively necessary"- It is essential for Cicero that he exists. - Necessary/Wiggins: should distinguish these cases.
Trivial essential/Simons: E.g. to be colored if red, e.g. to be self-identical, e.g. to exist, E.g. -"to be like that 2 + 2 = 4" - essential attributes: are no -"mere facts" ("brute fact"), but an object has them by virtue of the fact that it belongs to a certain type. - It is not accidental for an object of a given type, that it has the characteristics which underlie the type.
Normal/essential/middle course/Simons: -"normal part of a normal thing of a type" - middle course between simple and essential part. - often forgotten by philosophers. - (S) takes type as the fundamental concept. - But no formal theory. - Normality: perhaps starting from wellformedness . - Woltersdorff: E.g. music piece, performance. - SimonsVs: does not work because of transitivity of identity. - Solution/(s): Type.
Parts Oxford New York 1987