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|Method||Gould I 189
Darwin took the view that the fossil finds were extremely incomplete.
The history of most fossil species includes two characteristics which are especially difficult to reconcile with the theory of gradual change.
1) Stasis: Most species show little change in one or another direction during their presence on Earth.
2) Sudden Appearance: In all spheres of life, species do not appear on the basis of incessant changes in their predecessors, but suddenly and "fully developed".
Mayr V 160
How-Questions/Mayr: immediate function led to the discovery of most natural laws.
Why-Questions/Darwin/Mayr: historical, evolutionary, indirect. Why-questions were only scientifically legitimized by Darwin. He thus introduced the entire natural history into science.
As shown in Fig.
Dennett I 293
"Why"-Questions/Dennett: Need to be asked. Darwin showed us how to answer them. (>Purpose, cause).
Dennett I 421
Extrapolation/DennettVsGould: the extrapolationism is not represented as foolishly "pure" as Gould assumes. It was also represented by Darwin himself, but he was eager to distinguish himself from those kinds of catastrophic theories that were in the way of the theory of evolution e.g. flood, Bible.
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999