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Animal/Information/Deception/Dawkins: can animals lie, i.e deliberately give false information?
Mr. and Mrs. Gardner: Thesis chimpanzees can deceive and lie.
DawkinsVs: instead, I speak of an effect that functionally corresponds to deception.
E.g. a bird emits a warning call to secure food for himself alone. We should only say that he got food at the expense of the others.
Deception/Genes/Dawkins: since we grew up with the idea that evolution serves the "well-being of the species", we naturally assume that liars and deceived belong to different species.
But we must even expect children to deceive their parents, wives to deceive their husbands, and brothers lying to each other.
Animal/Psychology/Nicholas Humphrey: Thesis Socially living beings must develop a psychology.
Das egoistische Gen, Hamburg 1996
M. St. Dawkins
Die Entdeckung des tierischen Bewusstseins Hamburg 1993