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Seeing/Duhem: E.g. magnifying glass: for the use is no study of the diopters necessary. You can see that the object is magnified with the magnifying glass. But when they perceive a new object through use, which they could not observe beforehand: here one must say that the object was neither created nor transformed by the lens. The results depend in no way on the diopters.
E.g. tangent compass: We can observe a deflection around e.g. 30°. This does not require any theory, but it also does not constitute a physical experiment. The physicist does not really want to know the deflection but to measure the intensity of the current.
Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien Hamburg 1998