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Observation/Theory/Seeing/Knowing/Feyerabend: the problems with observation that existed at Galileo's time cannot be solved by a comparison with what we see or know today.
Kepler's Theory of Seeing/Seeing/Kepler/Feyerabend: failed at the clearest and simplest data. But, and that was the decisive thing: there were telescope observations, namely changes in the brightness of the planets, which corresponded better with Copernicus than the results of observation with the naked eye. This proved for Galileo the Copernican theory and the usefulness of the telescope. Confidence in the reliability of the telescope and the recognition of its importance were not two different things for Galileo, but two sides of the same process. It cannot be said more clearly that there were no independent data.
Wider den Methodenzwang Frankfurt 1997
Erkenntnis für freie Menschen Frankfurt 1979