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Knowledge/16th century/Foucault: (savoir) thus consists in referring language to language. One speaks on the basis of a language that is one with the world. Every discourse, however, is addressed to the first script, which at the same time promises and postpones it. The experience of language belongs to the same archaeological raster as the knowledge of the things of nature.
Definition knowledge/Foucault: Speaking, how one has to speak.
Knowledge/Language/Foucault: The affiliation of language to knowledge frees an entire historical field, which had not existed in the preceding epochs. Something like the history of knowledge becomes possible.
The language is, in a sense, its meaningless envelope.
A story of the meaning, of belief, of superstition of every order, is written, but the writings are less good witnesses than the words themselves.
The old relationship to the text, through which the renaissance defined the erudition, has been transformed; it has become the relation to the pure element of language in the classic.
Knowledge/19th century/Foucault: not anymore space of knowledge of identities and differences, of non-quantitative order, but new: characterized by organizations, that is, of internal relations between the elements whose totality assures a function. These organizations are continuously. New forms:
Analogy and sequence (19th century): not anymore identity of elements, but identity of the relationship between the elements. History gives the analogous organizations space.
Definition knowledge/Foucault: the quantity of elements regularly formed by a discursive practice and indispensable for the constitution of a science, although these are not necessarily intended to induce this constitution.
Not the sum of what we have seen as true, but the totality of behaviors, peculiarities, and deviations about which one can speak in discourse.
It is also the space in which the subject is located that can occupy a position. The totality of the functions of the look, the questioning, the deciphering, the registration, the decision, which the subject can exercise in discourse. The field of coordination and subordination of statements. The totality of the ways and positions according to which new statements can be integrated.
No knowledge without definite discursive practice. Any discursive practice can be determined by the knowledge that forms it.
Archeology/Foucault: instead of following the axis consciousness, epistemology, science (which cannot be freed from the index of subjectivity), it follows the axis
discursive practice, knowledge, science. Central: Knowledge in cases where the subject does not appear as the owner.
Ideological history: central: insight, subjectivity.
Knowledge: not only in demonstrations, but also infections, reflections, reports, regulations, decisions.
Question: according to which principle does the advancement of a domain of science occur in a given discursive formation?
The Order of Things: An Archaeology of Human Sciences 1994
Archäologie des Wissens Frankfurt/M. 1981