|Meaning: Differs from the reference object (reference). The object does not have to exist for an expression to have a meaning. Words are not related to objects in a one-to-one correspondence. There is an important distinction between word meaning and sentence meaning. See also use theory, sentence meaning, reference, truth.|
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Meaning/Hintikka: If meanings are something that people can grasp and deal with, they cannot be invariant with regard to logical equivalence.
Logical equivalence/Hintikka: logical equivalence is not computable (not effective, not decidable). Therefore, the identity of meaning ((s) synonymy) cannot go along with equivalence, for then we cannot always know whether two sentences denote the same.
Solution/Hintikka: the best solution would be if we restrict the concept of a
Definition meaning, which can be grasped by humans, by "almost invariant worlds" (e.g. an urn model, in which balls are not returned, but it is not always recognizable that none are returned).
Meaning/Hintikka: meaning is therefore intentional because of the failure of logical equivalence.
Jaakko and Merrill B. Hintikka
The Logic of Epistemology and the Epistemology of Logic Dordrecht 1989
J. Hintikka/M. B. Hintikka
Untersuchungen zu Wittgenstein Frankfurt 1996