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Ostension/Show/W-Questions/dual ostension paradox/Terminology/Hintikka:
Definition dual ostension paradox/Hintikka: E.g. someone comes into the room and asks, pointing to someone:
(6) Who is the man over there?
(7) I know who the man is over there
E.g. It's Sir Norman Brook.
(8) I know that the man there is Sir Norman Brook.
Now another person comes into the room, e.g. with a message and asks:
(9) Who of the present is Sir Norman Brook?
Paradox/Hintikka: the paradox is the double use of the interrogatives.
Wrong solution: it is not in a twofold sense of "is".
Solution/Hintikka: the solution is to accept two different methods of cross-world identification (public and perceptual).
(7) can thus be paraphrased:
(11) (∃x) Kl (the man there = x)
Quantification/problem: because a quantifier is dependent on the concept of the individual and because the concept of the individual is context-dependent in epistemic logic, we need different quantifiers.
Then, for example, (10) must be paraphrased as
(12) (∃x) Kl (Sir Norman Brook = x)
"(∃x)"/Hintikka: corresponds to the perceptual (see above: perspective identification). Corresponds to Russell's "acquaintance".
Jaakko and Merrill B. Hintikka
The Logic of Epistemology and the Epistemology of Logic Dordrecht 1989
J. Hintikka/M. B. Hintikka
Untersuchungen zu Wittgenstein Frankfurt 1996