|Reference, in philosophy: relation of a linguistic expression or action to a real object. Reference presupposes the existence of this object. An expression, which corresponds to no object, has no reference, however, may have a meaning. See also unicorn, Pegasus.|
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|Reference||Horwich I 370/71
Reference/Leeds: is no longer defined in terms of translation, because one cannot say in theoretical terms:
(Ey) (N refers to y)
Whereby N is a foreign-language word.
Problem: the existence of y is not secured.
Today: Causal theories.
Problem: Numbers are probably not referring - hence there is probably no reference definition for any language possible.
Problem: if reference is undefined ("B" or "C"), from a foreign-language expression, then "A" veut dire A" is just as ambiguous! - Then there are several reference schemes defined by a single Tarskian reference sentence - We cannot say that a foreign language has no standard interpretation by invoking the indeterminacy of the translation.
Standard interpretation: must not be given, even if ""Caesar" has the relation R to Caesar" is trivially true by determination.
P. Horwich (Ed.)
Theories of Truth Aldershot 1994