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|Forces||Holz I 97f
Single/substance/force/Leibniz: every single substance is to be understood as a force center. The present state carries within itself the law of its generation and the law of its continuation.
Force/Leibniz: Time, movement and change are manifestations of the original active force (vis primitiva activa) or of the striving for change of state (appetitus).
Force/Passivity/Leibniz: force also includes the ability to adapt one's own condition passively to the changes of the other substances. (Suffer).
Thus the original force is divided: in vis activa and vis passiva.
Leibniz also calls the "points of force" "metaphysical points."
The original force is on all sides by the individual substances, which cannot be unfolded at will. Thus the derived forces are only modifications of the original force.
Force/LeibnizVsDescartes: mere expansion is not enough! Therefore, one must add the force.
The merely extensive mass carries in itself no principle of qualitative distinction, since expansion is purely quantitative. Only in this way movement and change can occur.
Nature must be explained from its own concept.
Holz I 106
Possibility/Leibniz: Possible things are always equipped with the active power to strive for reality. Otherwise nothing would exist. One cannot say with reason "certain possibilities" would have the tendency, "others" would not have them.
Force/Leibniz: is the act of capability equipped with striving.
Reality/Leibniz: there are (infinitely many) gradations between possibility and reality.
Single/Substances/Leibniz: points of force.
Ambiguous: "acting in itself" and "acting upon oneself". The latter denotes precisely the transition of the outward action. The unity of both types of force is repeated at every point of force.
The individual substances have spontaneity. They have no other action or suffering than that which they themselves produce. Absolute autonomy of substances.
G. W. Leibniz
Philosophical Texts (Oxford Philosophical Texts) Oxford 1998
H. H. Holz
Leibniz Frankfurt 1992