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|Order||Page numbers here from the German edition: K. Lorenz, Das sogenannte Böse Wien, 1963
1. Anonymous flocks, free of aggression, but also free of personal acquaintance.
2. Family life of the night-rowers, among others. Birds: clan only built on a local structure of the territories to be defended.
3. Strange large family of rats, whose members do not recognize each other personally, but through the smell of the clan, and behave in an exemplary social manner. Hostile to other clans.
4. Social order: through the bond of personal love and friendship prevented from mutual damage: e.g. greyleg goose.
Definition flock/Animal/Lorenz: a flock is not a coincidental accumulation, but individuals responding to each other. Reciprocal triggering of attention.
This is why walking in the same direction is characteristic of the flocks.
Strangely enough, it is not clear what the purpose is of sticking together in fish, birds, and many mammals.
Disadvantages: difficulty to procure food for so many animals, impossibility of concealment,...
...increased susceptibility to parasites.
Lorenz: one has only found starved single animals regularly under sleeping trees every morning.
Advantages: the predators are unable to concentrate on a goal.
Interestingly, you can even experience the fact that you have to concentrate on a particular animal to catch one at all!
The other bird, which seems to be easier to handle, is almost never caught because you have not followed its movements in the previous seconds. Surprisingly, one often picks between two equally appealing goals.
If the presence of an enemy is suspected, flocks gather closer together.
Marriage/animal/birds/Lorenz: in many birds, the partners do not place any importance on being together.
Each animal defends its territory exclusively against its conspecific of the same sex.
Society/Animals/Lorenz: 3. Form: a held together community through aggression directed outwardly.
Bees, termites, ants, for example, recognize each other by the smell of their stick. They are extremely aggressive against strangers.
Definition Group/Lorenz: a group is a community that is held together by a bond of personal ties.
Individual reactions of single members.
Real group formation is independent of the location. (Whereas in many species of animals a completely altered behavior can be observed in the case of transplantation from the place of origin, as well as in the case of conspecifics, they often fail to recognize one another).
Group/Animals/Lorenz: In group-forming species, the linkage between partners is initiated differently: the future partners are more brittle to each other.
E.g. Cichlid: the cichlid displays sharply passing aggression gestures towards the partner.