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Cause/Bbiology: it can be difficult or even impossible to find the exact the cause for an interaction of complex systems.
Strict causality: can usually be determined by considering the selected option at each step of the action chain in retrospect. In retrospect, even randomly chosen components can be regarded as causal.
Causes/Mayr: Every phenomenon is the result of two causes, an indirect one ("why, genetic program") and an direct one (functional, "how").
Cause: in the inanimate world there is only one kind of causes, that of the natural laws (often in combination with random processes).
Cause: E.g. "Indirect cause": choice of a moderate time of year for the rearing of the offspring.
Indirect: abundance of food direct cause: length of days.
Cause/Paul Weiss/Mayr: all biological systems have two sides: they are both causal mechanisms and products of evolution.
Cause/Biology: direct: affect the phenotype: morphology and behavior, mechanically, here and now, decoding a genetic code discovery by experiments
Indirect: affect the genotype - probabilistic - effective and emerged over long periods of time, emergence and alteration of genetic programs discovery by conclusions from historical representations.
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998