|Epistemology, philosophy: examines the conditions for the emergence of knowledge and the basis for justification and confirmation. Epistemology cannot explain special cases in which someone who has less information may give more correct answers. See also knowledge, theory, justification, confirmation, reliability.|
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Epistemology/Leibniz/Aristotle/Millikan: the dispute between Leibniz and Aristotle reappears at the level of epistemology:
For example, the assertion "x is red" is equivalent to the assertion "x looks red for a standard observer under standard conditions.
Problem: then follows from "x is not red": "x does not look red for .. under ...".
Ontological/ontology: this corresponds to the fact that non-red would be a void, an absence of red - rather than an opposite of red.
However, it is about that "x is not red" is equivalent to "x does not look red under standard ..." is either empty or false.
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987